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20 octobre 2022
Engin de chantier

Vue d'un engin de chantier démolissant des gravats de béton (Allemagne, 2012).

© Henry Czauderna - Fotolia

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•1 ITIA, 2020. Tungsten in 2019 End-Use Updates.                              

•2 USGS, 2022. Mineral Commodity Summaries. https://pubs.usgs.gov/periodicals/mcs2022/mcs2022-tungsten.pdf

•3 CM group, 2021. https://www.cmgroup.net/news/mnr-2021-annual-production-quotas-for-res-and-w-ore/

•4 BRGM, 2017. : Fiche de synthèse sur la criticité des métaux – Le tungstène – Version 2

•5 Roskill, 2019. Tungsten: Global Industry, Markets and Outlook to 2028. Thirteenth Edition, 2019

•6 European Commission, 2020. Study on the EU's list of Critical Raw Materials (2020) - Final Report https://ec.europa.eu/growth/sectors/raw-materials/areas-specific-interest/critical-raw-materials_fr

•7 USGS, 2017. Mineral Commodity Summaries.  

•8 Tkaczyk et al., 2018.. Tkaczyk, A. H., Bartl, A., Amato, A., Lapkovskis, V., & Petranikova, M. (2018). Sustainability evaluation of essential critical raw materials: cobalt, niobium, tungsten and rare earth elements. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 51(20), 203001.

•9 Graedel et al., 2013. Graedel, T. E., Harper, E. M., Nassar, N. T., & Reck, B. K. (2015). On the materials basis of modern society. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(20), 6295-6300.

•10 UNEP, 2011. United Nations Environment Programme (2011). Recycling Rates of Metals: A Status Report..

•11 Zeiler et al., 2021. Zeiler, B., Bartl, A., & Schubert, W. D. (2021). Recycling of tungsten: Current share, economic limitations, technologies and future potential. Int J Refract Hard Met , 98, 105546.

•12 Cambridge et BGS 2015. Leal-Ayala DR, Allwood JM, Petavratzi E, et al (2015) Mapping the global flow of tungsten to identify key material efficiency and supply security opportunities. Resour Conserv Recycl 103:19–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.RESCONREC.2015.07.003

•13 GTK 2021. Simon Michaux. 29.1.2021. Outlook for Tungsten. Geological Survey of Finland - KTR Unit - Espoo Office. https://tupa.gtk.fi/raportti/arkisto/2_2021.pdf 

•14 Shandong University 2017. Ma, X., Qi, C., Ye, L., Yang, D., Hong, J., 2017. Life cycle assessment of tungsten carbide powder production: A case study in China. J. Clean. Prod. 149, 936–944. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.02.184

•15  Argus Metals. https://metals.argusmedia.com

•16 UE, 2017. Regulation (EU) 2017/821 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 May 2017 laying down supply chain due diligence obligations for Union importers of tin, tantalum and tungsten, their ores, and gold originating from conflict-affected and high-risk areas

•17 OCDE, 2016. OCDE (2016), Guide OCDE sur le devoir de diligence pour des chaînes d'approvisionnement responsables en minerais provenant de zones de conflit ou à haut risque : Troisième édition, Éditions OCDE, Paris

•18 ECHA, 2022. https://echa.europa.eu/fr/home

•19 Deschamp et al., 2002. Deschamps, Y. , Vadala, P. , Gentilhomme, P. , Gâteau, C. ; Guillou .Y. , Joubert, M. , Marroncle, J-L. (2002) - L'inventaire minier de la France Métropolitaine 2002. BRGM/RP-51455-FR, CD-Rom

•20 Gourcerol et al., 2021. Gourcerol, B. ; Gutierrez, T. , Pochon, A. , Picault, M. , Gloaguen, E. , Fournier, E. (2021) - Évolution Base de données "Gisements France" : Atlas des substances critiques et stratégiques. Rapport final . BRGM/RP-71133-FR, 66 p.

•21 Le kiosque de Bercy. https://lekiosque.finances.gouv.fr

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The  future  market  of  phosphate  rock  is  in  a great extend controlled by changes in supply and demand of fertilisers used in agriculture and strongly connected with the global population growth

FAO

•In the natural world, phosphates – characterised by the PO43- radical – are the main carrier of elemental phosphorus P.

•Phosphates form a mineral class of about 200 species (class VIII in Strunz Classification), although most members are quite rare. Most important and abundant is apatite Ca5(PO4)3(F, Cl, OH).

•P is one of the six main building blocks of life (together with oxygen, hydrogen, potassium, nitrogen and carbon).

     Vital for all life on planet earth. 2nd most abundant element in human body after Ca (bones, DNA, RNA, etc.).